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  1. Case Studies
  2. References - Geology of Carbonate Reservoirs - Wiley Online Library
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Martin K. Dubois, Alan P. Byrnes, Geoffrey C. Bohling, and John H. Reservoir characterization and modeling from pore to field scale of the Hugoton Field central U. Both the knowledge gained and the techniques and workflow employed have implications for understanding and modeling reservoir systems worldwide that have similar geologic age and reservoir architecture e. The Kansas-Oklahoma portion of the field has yielded billion m3 34 tcf gas over a seventy year period from over 12, wells.

Case Studies

Most remaining gas is in lower permeability pay zones of the meter thick, differentially depleted, layered reservoir system. The main pay zones represent thirteen shoaling-upward, fourth-order marine-continental cycles, comprising thin-bedded meter , marine carbonate mudstone to grainstone and siltstones to very fine sandstones, and have remarkable lateral continuity.

They are separated by low reservoir quality eolian and sabkha redbed. Petrophysical properties vary among eleven major lithofacies classes. Neural network procedures, stochastic modeling, and automation facilitated building a detailed full-field 3D million cell cellular reservoir model of the 10, mi2 26, km2 area using a four step workflow: 1 define lithofacies in core and correlate to electric log curves training set , 2 train a neural network and predict lithofacies at non-cored wells, 3 populate a 3D cellular model with lithofacies using stochastic methods, and 4 populate model with lithofacies-specific petrophysical properties and fluid saturations.

Asquith, G. Berg, R. Boardman, D. II, and Merlynd K. Johnson ed. Circular , Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, p. Bohling, G. Doveton, , Kipling. Byrnes, A. Caldwell, C. Watney, A. Walton, C.

References - Geology of Carbonate Reservoirs - Wiley Online Library

Caldwell, and M. Deutsch, C. Dubois, M. Byrnes, and G. Dunham, R. Ham, ed. Dutton, S. Kim, C.

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Gaymard, R. Poupon, , Response of neutron and formation density logs in hydrocarbon bearing formations: The Log Analyst, v. IX, no. George, B. Torres-Verdin, M. Delshad, R.

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    Hough, E. Rzasa, and B. Wood, , Interfacial tensions at reservoir pressures and temperatures; apparatus and the water-methane system: Petroleum Transaction American Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Tech. For discussion purposes, such a succession low-energy conditions while the platform was sub- is shown in Table 1 and partly demonstrates litho- merged, probably in a shallow, restricted lagoon. A brief description is provided in the sections immediately following, Brachiopod and Crinoid Skeletal-peloid whereas the implications for the general depositional Grainstone-packstone BSP and CSP system spatial distribution of lithofacies types and An inferred rise in relative sea level resulted in cycle thickness are discussed in subsequent sections.

    The basal associated depositional energy, from base to top, is part of the cycles can be either brachiopod skeletal- as follows: cycles generally start with a thin peloid peloid grainstone-packstone or crinoid skeletal-peloid packstone-wackestone that exhibits subaerial expo- grainstone-packstone, but brachiopod skeletal-peloid sure features and are commonly interbedded with grainstone-packstone is dominant.

    This succes- or ongoing restriction caused by emergent outer plat- sion is, in turn, overlain by coated-grain grainstone- form shoals or barriers. Obviously, times of maximum flooding. Brachiopod skeletal-peloid deviations from this generalization exist, and cycle grainstone-packstone is poorly sorted, composed of large, thickness, stacking patterns, and relative contribution commonly in growth position, thick-walled brachio- of each facies type vary within and across the major pods, variable crinoids, diverse algal fragments and sequences.

    The boundary that shows evidence for subaerial exposure is overlain by poorly sorted skeletal-peloid grainstone-packstone SPP with elevated bitumen cement in the lower 70 cm 27 in. Photomicrographs show the range of PPW textures. Common skeletal grains are tubular algal fragments B, D , calcispheres B, E , and minor coated skeletal grains and aggregrate grains C, D. Width of photomicrographs is 4. B, C — E, respectively. The boundary is overlain by peloid packstone-wackestone PPW and a thick interval of brachiopod-skeletal-peloid grainstone-packstone BSP.

    Concentrations of in-situ brachiopods and local development of intraparticle and shelter porosity are clearly visible in the BSP interval. Brachiopods are dominant constituents and range from small thin-walled less than 2 cm [0. Note the sutured, stylotized contacts of the brachiopods.

    Other common grain types are crinoid ossicles, peloids, algal fragments, and benthic foraminifera. Ooids are generally small, ranging from quency and volume in the upper part of the Visean A 0. Intervals Coated grains are commonly skeletal fragments with of brachiopod skeletal-peloid grainstone-packstone coatings that are micritic and mainly constructional.

    Coated- skeletal-peloidal sand. Some in- and seem to preferentially occur near the platform tervals display clast-supported flat pebbles, indicative margin wells T, T, T-8, and T Crinoid of beach environments. Dominant grain types range skeletal-peloid grainstone-packstone is interpreted as from coated grains to ooids and algal grains.