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Separate institution was established for the juvenile and young offenders. A number of juvenile institutions were established on the model of reformatories and Borstals. It has failed so far to regard the prisoner as an individual and has concerned of him rather as a unit in the jail administrative machinery. The Jail Committee also discouraged the use of corporal punishment in prisons. Prison labor must be productive. Its object must be for the reformation of the offender.
The Jail Committee also made valuable suggestions for after care programme and the welfare of the discharged prisoners. During , psychological and psychiatric treatment of the prisoners gained momentum.
After Independence, several changes were made in the prison system in India. In the Constitution, administration of prison was included as a state subject. In the Indian Prisons, an ideal classification of prisoners were followed. The Prisoners availed facilities such as ticket of leave, educational and vocational training and medical facilities. It is said that the main object of the prison system must be reformation of the offender. Retributive aim must be avoided to the maximum extent. The prison authorities must take sufficient efforts to reform them.
There are many persons who commit crimes because of sudden impulsiveness or the compulsion of circumstances. Some offenders might have to undergo the prison term because of miscarriage of justice. They would find it very difficult to adjust with other inmates and the prison officers. But in practice, the prison authorities enforce discipline and bring out reformation by compulsion or force. Consequently the reformation of the offenders is just momentary.
When he is released from the prison, he tends to do criminal acts.
Prisons and Prison Systems: A Global Encyclopedia - Greenwood - ABC-CLIO
Prison disciplinary system reflects the criminal justice processes used in the society. But in prison what is seen by one is, these processes at their extremes. In general, Prison discipline means the regulation or attempt on regulation of the prisoners by means of punishments for infraction of prison rules. The main aim of the incarceration is to generate a feeling of dislike for prison life among the members of the society. The object is to dissuade people from doing acts which may land them in prisons. William Howard Taft observes, that prisons are so planned as to provide unpleasant compulsory isolation from general society.
A prison characterizes rigid discipline, provision for bare necessities, strict security arrangements and monotonous prison life. The prison personnel are usually untrained without specialized training in their field. If the prisoners are not kept under proper control they may become restive. Prison life implies restriction on the liberty of an individual against his will. The atmosphere inside the prison must satisfy the safety and security of the prisoners.
It must also cause minimum amount of confrontation with the prison officials. Another problem which the authorities have to face is the prison riot. Nowadays the difference between the prison life and the life outside of the prison is reduced. Prisoners are aware of their rights and the duties of the prison officials. They can discuss with the other inmates and this gives them an opportunity to join together and complain about any erring officials. Those are a a line of period of expressive behavior and destruction; b small bands of inmates leaders emerged from the turmoil; c grievances were presented against the administration and appeal were made for public sympathy and support; d power gradually reverted to the prison authorities.
In India, the system of Self Government in prison hardly been successful. It is because of the lack of general moral discipline, lack of education and the circumstances. In India, a partial Self Government system is adopted. The Prisoners who have behaved well are selected. They have to work with the guards and wardens. They are given facilities. They are allowed to move out of the institution on certain occasions.
These concessions have certain merit. They create a sense of trust, loyalty among these prisoners. They also create a psychological feeling among the inmates that if they behave well they can also enjoy the facilities. Social Science Research guide. S 63 Legal Research Methods.
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Prisons and Prison Systems : A Global Encyclopedia
Forgot password? Don't have an account? Sign in via your Institution. Sign in with your library card. Search within Variation in the Structure and Scale of Control U. Show Summary Details Summary and Keywords Over the past half-century, the number of adults under criminal justice supervision increased precipitously in some Western countries, with carceral control in the United States reaching an unprecedented scale.
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