There is considerable interest in studying coastal waters to gain a better understanding of earth system processes for climatic change research or environmental factors for management decisions. Consequently, there is a need for robust, effective technologies and methods for studying these important complex environments.
Remote sensing from aircraft and space-based platforms offers unique large-scale synoptic data to address the intricate nature of coastal waters. However, many researchers wishing to apply remote sensing to a dynamic coastal environment are faced with the challenge of learning a technology laden with new and often confusing terminology, data, and methods of processing and analysis.
To gain an adequate understanding of remote sensing generally involves scouring countless technical manuals, reports, and scientific papers. Hence the major goal of writing this work was to produce a comprehensive resource for those involved in various studies of coastal aquatic environments. With its primary focus on optical remote sensing using passive instruments, the editors have indeed succeeded in creating a book the scientific community has been waiting for.
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Remote Sensing Applications Series
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Being rather tolerant to different environmental conditions, a group like rotifers is a good indicator biosensors of the water quality due to its capability to tolerate severe environmental conditions especially the eutrophication and can be used for the environmental monitoring of the different water bodies. With the progress of phytoplankton biomass increasing, the abundance of these primary producers causes herbivorous zooplankton organisms to abound.
As a result of eutrophication and pollution, some species belonging to different groups like the copepod Acartia clausi is prevailed, while others became wade. Remote sensing systems are being utilized to help in fishery sustainable management while additionally directing the fishing ships to the wealthy fishery ground and detecting the more effective fish shoal location. In the ocean, fishes tend to aggregate in some areas which have favorable conditions that change from one species to another; these conditions like primary productivity watercolor , ocean surface temperature, and maritime fronts, which firmly impact common changes of fish stocks, Cannot be monitored and estimated by airborne and satellite remote sensors.
The remotely detected information is provided in near-actuality time to help fishers save sailing time and fuel during their seeking for fish, modelers who offer fishery prognostications, and researchers who help evolve strategies for sustainable fishery administration [ 45 ]. Also, world interest for fish has been rising all over, both in developed nations because of rising standards of living and also developing nations, whose populace continues developing quickly [ 47 ]. Sustainable utilization of aquatic resources requires strict monitoring and management of whole ecosystems, not just abused fish stocks.
Ordinary methodologies of sampling at the sea utilizing research vessels are restricted in both time and space scale of coverage, making it hard to think about the studying of the whole ecosystem. Since the beginning of satellite remote sensing, particularly remote sensing of sea surface temperature and color, it has become conceivable to sample the worldwide ocean on synoptic scales and with acceptable temporal resolutions [ 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 ].
There is also a wide range of practical fishery-related applications of remotely sensed data, including bycatch reduction, detection of harmful algal blooms, detection of fish shoal, aquaculture site selection, and identifying marine managed areas, as well as oceanographic and meteorological forecasting that improve scientific knowledge and safety of operations at sea [ 52 , 53 ].
Discovering fish shoals and rich fishing sites is the fundamental reason for fuel consumption and vessel time cost in numerous commercial fisheries. To bring down the expense of fishing operations, there is a need to utilize biosensors, similar to a two-edged sword, which can be utilized not exclusively to help manage fisheries at sustainable levels yet, additionally, to guide fishing fleets to raise their catch.
Satellites can be utilized to find and anticipate prospective favorable zones of fish aggregation given the remotely sensed ecological indicators. These indicators may incorporate seafronts, separating waters of various colors or temperature; upwelling zones, which are cooler and greener more productive than background waters; particular temperature ranges favored by certain fish; and so forth [ 45 ]. This image of satellite is one of a kind in that it displayed for the first time that remotely watched oceanographic features, like fronts, could be specifically concerning to fish catch.
Shoreward interferences of oceanic water are synchronized with albacore aggregation zones. Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner CZCS satellite image showed locations of fish catch and their relation to the water color and showed a transition from coastal waters orange color refers to the coastal water with high productivity, and blue color refers to the offshore areas.
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Source: NASA. Two instant areal density images of fish shoals near the continental shelf edge obtained by ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing on 14 May A and 15 May B ; and C is the spectrum analysis . The main merit of using airborne remote sensing technique is that researchers can determine the remote sensing system characteristics. By picking the suitable focal length and flight altitude, they can steer the spatial resolution as well as the coverage.
Moreover, the researcher can pick convenient atmosphere like clear atmosphere without cloud , suitable tidal range like the low tide , and sun angle [ 56 , 57 ]. Drones are in particular cost-effective for coastal fish habitat detection nearshore.
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Skilled spotter pilots are used by fishing fleets to locate different fish shoals and direct the vessels by radio transmission [ 52 , 58 ]. At night, fish shoals can be detected by the naked eye when plankton produces bioluminescence as a result of its stimulation by fish motions.
To remedy this instance, a large number of airborne sensors have been added, including digital cameras, thermal infrared radiometers, low-light-level TV, and LIDAR and radar systems [ 52 ]. Airborne LIDAR LIDAR is a system that emits laser light pulses that can penetrate up to three times the Secchi depth of a water column has likewise been utilized to study coral reef, fish habitats and other sea life. An essential application of high-resolution imagers and airborne lidar is in coral reef fisheries, which is an area of significant source of income and food in developed and developing countries.
Coral reef ecosystems are topographically complex environments, and this structural heterogeneity influences the behavior, abundance, and distribution of local ocean organisms. Satellite imageries, lidar, and high-resolution airborne images are being utilized to study and map these complex coral reef fish habitats and other ocean life [ 59 , 60 , 61 ]. Due to the strong relationship between the coral reef habitat and potential fish abundance and diversity, these maps are utilized by reef managers to facilitate ecosystem-based fishery management EBFM approaches, to guide sampling strategies, and to identify conservation areas.
Another useful airborne sensor is side-looking airborne radar SLAR. Its operation depends upon emitting pulses and receiving signals that represent the backscattering intensities from the sea surface. The size and intensity of these wavelets rely upon school size, fish behavior at the surface, swimming activities, and fish size. The SLAR can pick up the little changes in the backscatter pattern caused by the fish shoal [ 52 ]. Satellite images combined with other in situ data can be construed to find the suitable oceanic environmental conditions for fish aggregation [ 62 ].
Because certain species of game and commercial fish are indigenous to waters of a specific temperature and environmental conditions, fishers can spare ship tide and fuel by being capable of locating the higher potential sites more quickly [ 48 , 63 ]. Other reason, that satellites are at the most modern and sophisticated in fisheries studies and resources management because the variability and magnitude of seas primary productivity that are very highly unknown on a vast worldwide scale, mainly due to the high temporal and spatial fluctuation of ocean phytoplankton abundance and diversity.
As an example, in coastal regions, wind induced upwelling that conveys nutrients up to the water surface, causing patchy areas with high productivity, in addition to high chlorophyll and phytoplankton abundance, which can be monitored and detected by temperature and color sensors on satellites [ 48 , 64 ]: [ 65 , 66 ]. Within every EBC the primary production diminished with latitude, while the range of the active zones is related to the volume of off-shore transfer. Differences in monitored fish catch were also correlated with the different trophic structure and spatial accessibility [ 48 , 52 , 67 , 68 ].
Satellite Ocean color and temperature maps right along the California coast showing the upwelling areas and chlorophyll distribution left along the California coast. Source: P. Zion and M. Newly developed satellite remote sensing techniques, combined with in situ measurements, constitute the most effective ways for efficient management and controlled exploitation of marine resources by combining in situ measuring data with satellite remote sensing ones. Spectral and spatial resolutions of biosensors are the most important characteristics of the sensor.
Biosensors on board of satellites are capable of detecting and identifying conditions of mangrove and coral reef as well as water salinity, eutrophication, heat, and dynamics of fish shoals in the aquatic environment. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Suriyanarayanan Sarvajayakesavalu. Edited by Bishnu Pal.
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