Others have pointed out that markets and exchange increase rather than decrease cultural diversity Cowen, ; ; Singh, ; c or that there are policy options that preserve both Voon, ; Singh, Whichever way the debate is parsed, it is hard to deny the importance of cultural identity.
Precisely because cultural products touch upon sensitive issues of identity, national elites have often galvanized and marshaled considerable resources and people to protect particular notions of identity, especially national ones Goff, ; Singh, Thus cultural identity and globalization is an important topic of study.
Several chapters in this volume explore identity issues, but two of them, from the developed-country context, are worthy of mention because of their focus on regional and local levels. Patricia Dewey Chapter 10 points out the importance of the idea of a European identity J. Singh 11 to the European Union project in general. In contrast, Jenny Johannisson Chapter 11 details cultural policies at the municipal and regional levels within Sweden to show their connections with both Swedish and EU cultural policies. Furthermore, all the chapters on the developing world deal with the issue of the evolution of cultural identities upfront.
The subsection below on cultural voice will again return to this point. Most cultural policies historically grew out of state patronage policies usually enacted for the purposes of projecting national or state power or for national identity or unity. At present state patronage systems are complemented or overlapped by other forms of institutional support.
The variety of measures available for support are sophisticated and not altogether that visible, especially in countries such as the US which do not have a ministry of culture. Cummings and Katz note that beginning with the early twentieth century, creative workers appeared as a force or a class of workers unto itself. In the European context, the welfare state, that would emerge later, catered to providing for the creative class as a full-fledged member of any economy.
Until the nineteenth century, creative work was part-time employment for most producers. In the US context, however, most creative workers survived through market means although government measures directly or indirectly did benefit cultural industries. Cherbo et al.
Examples of indirect funding come from tax measures that might encourage corporate or individual philanthropy. Other examples of indirect funding include tax breaks given to industry or enactment of copyright measures. The chapters that follow in this volume share and provide a few insights at the international level.
While they do not offer a comprehensive assessment of the variety of measures in comparative contexts, they do pinpoint the broad forces of change explained here in a set of interrelated points. First, as pointed out earlier, international organizations and global governance mechanisms now offer a supra-national level of cultural policy making. Measures at this level range from trade and international copyright policies to capacity building and support for cultural industries see Braman, Chapter 4. Its programs range from specific conventions 12 Global Cultural Policies and Power on tangible and intangible heritage to normative guidelines on support for cultural industries.
Second, what follows from involvement of international organizations or from local governance spheres is considerable levels of intermixing in the same sphere of activity rather than a delineation of activities. Third, government actors and memberstate driven international actors are joined by businesses and civil society involvements in the crafting of cultural policies. Fourth, it is becoming increasingly hard to generalize about the efficacy of particular cultural policy measures. As noted above, it is unclear if all international trade measures weaken cultural diversity.
Furthermore, market means can step in to make up for the insufficiency of state patronage. Examples include the success of Bollywood films, Colombian publishing industry, or Music from Mali. Fifth, a subtle point made in several chapters is the recognition of new spaces of cultural policy making and new sites of cultural production.
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Johannisson Chapter 11 writes of the complex spatial layers of cultural policy making at municipal and regional levels in Sweden. Champenois Chapter 16 explains the role of the film festival as a platform for marginalized voices. Finally, several chapters deal directly with the instrumentality of projecting state power or ideologies beyond its own borders. Public diplomacy has experienced a revival since September 11, , rejuvenated after a period of rapid decline and depleting resources, particularly in the US.
Former US Ambassador Cynthia Schneider Chapter 9 notes that cultural diplomacy humanizes interstate relations and need not be so concerned with involving cultural producers who have a favorable view only of their home country. Other instruments of interstate relations may be more indirect and intangible. UNESCO, for example, crafts norms of cultural production that may reveal the power or preferences of only a few states.
Brianso Chapter 14 notes that the space within which cultural policy for world heritage conservation is conceived J. Singh 13 is divorced from the actual heritage sites. She especially highlights the role of French cultural officials in creating such cultural heritage from afar.
At the level of ideology, Luke Chapter 3 , Valtysson Chapter 6 , Mulcahy Chapter 13 , and Galvan Chapter 17 caution us about noticing broad structural forces that bind acts of cultural expressions, production, and dissemination. I turn now to the recognition of the possibilities of finding emancipatory cultural voices. It is cultural representations that offer new possibilities to a set of people.
From the ancient Greek comedy Lysistrata to the tragic film Harvey Milk, art has provided a window to oppression. Especially in the case of the developing world, cultural expressions and representations reflect on and address past and present oppressive practices. Separately, I have explored how globalized cultural forms, even when produced through market means, allow for groups to find a cultural voice Singh, However, it would be foolhardy to believe that the context is only applicable to the developing world; the appellation of cultural voice in the context of the developing world offers one among many possibilities of its application.
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Two themes stand out in the chapters that follow: the location of voice and its hybridity and creolization. These practices reclaim and reposition cultural identities lost 14 Global Cultural Policies and Power through oppression. Isabelle Brianso provides somewhat of a counterpoint in noting how cultural power from UNESCO and France continues to be exercised in the valorization of particular heritage practices in Morocco and Cambodia.
Cultural authority in the Brianso case belongs to the Occident. NWICO advocacy, in parallel with other moves in the United Nations, questioned vociferously for over a decade both the content and the one-way flow of negative news and images from the developing world to the developed world. Studies showed that media corporations from the developed world controlled most media conduits and content from the global South to North, which were empirically calculated and documented see overview in Pavlic and Hamelink, Many chapters in this volume address hybridity; the chapter by Galvan contextualizes cultural hybridity within macro practices of political economy and social evolution.
Galvan Chapter 17 also takes relations of power and domineering discourses as its points of entry to examine the evolution of hybrid practices in political economy and everyday life in colonial and postcolonial Senegal. Ending the volume with this chapter is appropriate. Cultural hybridity, and not some notion of an authentic or essentialized cultural value, then offers the possibility of a cultural voice.
Conclusion This brief introduction notes that a focus on cultural industries and technologies allows us to examine both the instrumental and the transformative or constitutive logic of cultural power and identities. Cultural power and policies are keys to understanding ontologies of global politics that are gaining currency these days. I am referring here to multiperspectival governance Ruggie, ; Rosenau, , multiple identities Sen, , competition and adaptation to rival epistemes and organizational forms Keck and Sikkink, ; Spruyt, Nevertheless as with other kinds of politics, governance mechanisms must confront the material resource and ideologies of power holders.
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Singh 15 Notes 1. If royalty receipts are thrown in, the estimates could quadruple. For example, nearly half the total revenues for the motion picture industry in the US come from foreign sales and exports Vogel, , pp. Here cultural voice arises through commercial and market driven exchanges. Garcia Canclini , Appadurai , and many other scholars are reaching similar conclusions, even if with reservations.
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This is true in many and diverse ways. Obama affiliated 19 20 Cultural Policy and the Political Nature of Culture with and motivated African Americans by selecting from a repertoire of cultural items and styles, by talking not just about pie but about sweet potato pie.
He displayed his profound cultural skills when creating legible metaphors such as this one Danner parses about—pie as the good life deferred and finally achieved. He also knew how to instantiate and to perform a powerful narrative genre of American culture about the progressive drive to overcome bigotry.
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That politics are cultural is evident. Cultural beliefs and values ground ideas about why and to what extent human nature demands governing and what counts as private as opposed to public and legitimately governable. Studies of state propaganda, state-sponsored cultural programming and state promotion of heritage and regulation of artistic expression clearly demonstrate the conjoining of culture with power, particularly in totalitarian states. But culture is political as well, and this has perhaps been less well recognized and explored.
To understand culture as political in this way, it is necessary to adopt a more sophisticated and nuanced notion of culture than is typically found outside of anthropology, the sociology of culture and cultural studies. The culture concept is complex. Not only is the concept complex, the phenomena it denotes morph as relations between human groups change.